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Lepomis macrochirus Bluegill (Perch, bream, brim, sunfish, sunny) The bluegill is the most common sunfish in Texas. The solid black opercle fin, or ear, best differentiates the bluegill from the redear. Like the redear, the spiny dorsal fin of the bluegill has from nine to eleven spines and the anal fin has three spines. However; the soft dorsal fin of the bluegill displays a dark patch at the rear, unlike that of the redear. Bluegill prefer a gravel bottom and a slow current.
Lepomis microlophus Redear Sunfish (shellcracker) The redear is identified by the red edge of its opercle flap. The common name "shellcracker" refers to this fish's appetite for small snails. Redear prefer sand or silt bottoms in deeper pools with little current.
Lepomis cyanellus Green Sunfish (goggle-eye) The green sunfish is distinguished primarily by the dark green body, with yellowish extremities. The opercle fin is generaly tipped with a yellow border. The jutting lower jaw, small pectoral fin, and orange eyes are also characteristic. Green sunfish commonly utilize gravel or rocky bottoms and tollerate swifter currents than the other sunfish.
Lepomis megalotis Longear Sunfish The longear sunfish is easily identified by its brilliant red or orange body and turquois and green fins. The opercle flap is greatly elongated, compared to that of the bluegill or redear, and displays a white fringe during adulthood. The redear is most common in small streams, probably due to the fact that they rarely grow to lengths of more than 6 inches, making even the adults easy prey for large fish.
Lepomis gulosus Warmouth (Rock Bass) The warmouth is the largest of the sunfish common to the hill country. Its large size, dark coloration, and overall golden appearance set it apart from the green sunfish. Notice the orange spot at the base of the soft dorsal fin. Unlike other sunfish, the tounge of the warmouth contains small teeth. Warmouth prefer vegetation for cover and feed on crayfish, minnows, and insects.
Lepomis auritus Redbreast Sunfish (Yellow Belly) The Redbreast is distinguished by its yellow or orange belly and extended opercle fin. Though similar in build and coloration to the redear sunfish, the long, narrow opercle fin is a dead giveaway. Adults feed on insects, snails, crayfish, and small fish.

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A great book about flyfishing for Bluegill
Bluegill Fly Fishing and Flies
Bluegill Fly Fishing & Flies

Bluegill Fly Fishing & Flies covers the proper equipment; the best flies, including their recipes and techniques for using them; identifying the most productive bluegill waters; bluegill habits and behaviors; effective presentations; and many more tips. This book is your guide to more and larger bluegills.